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Structure of academic publication

The most popular structure of the scientific article is based on the principle IMRAD

Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion – international format of the scientific journal articles

Each article has a distinct structure:

  • Title
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results And
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • References

Title – clearly outlines the main aims of the article, starts with the research object, attracts the reader’s attention.

Abstract – shortly reflects the contents of the article: goals of the research, main aspects, methods, and results. It has to be highly informative and a little provocative to get the reader interested.

Keywords – the list of main terms considered in the article.

Introduction (І) – outlining the key problem, hypotheses. The Introduction should answer the question: What we already know about the research subject? What do we know? What will we consider in this particular article?

Methods (М) – description of particular methods and materials which are applied in the research process, description of all factors that influenced the received results.

Results (R) – a key chapter of the article, filled with specific theses and arguments. Tables, graphs, pictures are appropriate to be placed here.

Discussion (D) – comparison of the received results with the results of previous researches on the same topic, significance of the conducted research, do the results confirm a hypothesis, further perspective of studying the subject.

Conclusions – answers to the questions: Did you achieve the aim of the research? What is the significance of the results? Could the results have practical application? Which questions left without answers?

The scientific article is closed by the list of all sources used.


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